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Periodontology

Periodontology

Periodontology Ankara, Turkey (Gum Diseases, Treatment)

Periodontics; It is the branch of science that deals with the diseases of the bone and gum tissue surrounding the teeth and the treatment of these diseases.

The health of oral tissues is closely related to our general body health. Any inflammatory condition that occurs in our teeth and surrounding tissues can cause systemic disease in other parts of our body. Therefore, it is very important to protect the health of teeth and surrounding tissues.

What are the causes of gum diseases?

The primary cause of gum disease is dental plaque. The disease begins when the plaque on the teeth cannot be cleaned effectively. If we do not pay enough attention to our oral care, we cannot eliminate plaque, and over time, dental plaque calcifies, hardens and turns into tartar.

At the same time, tartar accumulates on dentures and other appliances in the mouth. Tartar can form both in the upper part of the gum and in the inner part of the gum. Once tartar has formed, it is not possible to remove it by brushing. Tartar needs to be removed by a doctor with special tools.

There are some factors that facilitate dental plaque accumulation. Sometimes the positions of the teeth, their improper alignment (such as crowding),and the presence of restorations in the mouth make it difficult to remove plaque. In such cases, the person should pay more attention to cleaning the plaque.

In addition to tooth brushing, using dental floss and mouthwash can help with cleaning. Our dietary habits and the characteristics of our saliva structure are also among the factors affecting dental plaque accumulation.

Although the primary cause of gum diseases is the presence of dental plaque, the presence of some systemic diseases such as diabetes and hereditary causes, that is, genetic factors, are also important factors in the formation of gum diseases.

What are the symptoms of gum diseases?

The appearance of a healthy gum is pink and the structure of the gum is a slightly rough and firm structure.

If there is bleeding in our gums, if the color of our gums is red or even almost purple in some areas, and if a soft consistency is formed, it means that our gums are inflamed and have lost their healthy structure.

  • The most important symptom of gum diseases is bleeding,
  • Gum enlargement may be observed, as well as gingival recession,
  • Bad breath,
  • Opening of gaps between teeth, displacement of teeth,
  • Loose teeth,
  • Sensibility.

While the initial inflammation of the gums is called gingivitis, gum diseases that occur when this inflammation progresses to deeper tissues and affects the bone tissue are called periodontitis.

Causes of Gum Recession

  • Presence of gum diseases,
  • Aging,
  • Developmental anatomical problems (such as thin bone or gum structure; too strong lip muscle connections),
  • Improper tooth brushing,
  • Piercing application,Mismatched prosthetic structures,
  • Flooded and faulty easts,
  • Gingival recession may occur as a result of mechanical pressure on the gums caused by some harmful habits (such as nail biting, teeth clenching).

As a result of gingival recession, aesthetically undesirable results may occur, and tooth sensitivity is also frequently encountered.

How are gum diseases treated?

The first condition of a good treatment is correct diagnosis. After detecting symptoms through clinical examination and performing radiological examination, the type and degree of the disease and the factors causing the disease should be determined.

Treatment of the disease may be a simple dental scaling or may include a long process including curettage and subsequent surgical interventions. If there is no bone loss, there are no serious changes in the gum tissue, and the destruction of the tissues around the teeth has not started yet, we can finish our treatment with only dental scaling and oral hygiene training.

In case of gum diseases, the physician can treat the patient with interventions in the clinical environment, but the permanence of the results of the treatment largely depends on the daily care of the patient after the treatment.

If the patient, who leaves the clinic in a healthy condition after the treatment, fails to use the correct brushing and care products in line with the recommendations, it will be inevitable for the disease to relapse in a short time.

The tartar that is visible above the gums is called supragingival tartar. These tartars are removed with the tartar cleaning process we call detergent. This process can be done with a device called cavitron, which works on the principle of vibration and water jetting, or it can be done with hand tools.

Tartars in the invisible area inside the gums are called subgingival tartars and pose a much greater threat to gum health. These tartars are also cleaned using both cavitron and hand tools. However, curettage treatment is mostly applied in the form of cleaning the root surfaces below the gum by scraping with hand tools. Since this treatment is performed under local anesthesia, patients do not feel pain.

We may need to perform flap surgery in patients with advanced disease that we cannot reach with curettage treatment.

What is flap surgery?

When performing flap surgery, local anesthesia is first administered and the dental tissues in the area are anesthetized. Then, with the help of a scalpel and elevator, the gums are gently lifted to reveal the areas where the disease has progressed. After cleaning the tartar and infected tissues, the gums are stitched and placed in their previous place.

It is not a painful procedure, except for exceptional cases, both during and after the procedure. The stitches are removed after a week. Unfortunately, in some cases, the disease is too advanced to be cured by any treatment method, and in this case, it is necessary to extract the tooth because it is loose, even if there is no decay in the tooth.

How is gum recession treated?

Before treating receding gums, it is necessary to identify and eliminate the cause. Afterwards, in order to regain the lost gum tissue, free gum graft or connective tissue graft surgeries are applied and the recession is treated by placing the gum taken from the palate area to the lost gum area.

The type and degree of gingival recession are decisive for the treatment results. These surgeries cannot be performed in every case of receding gums. In some cases, preventive treatments are applied only to prevent the progression of gingival recession. The physician will make the most accurate plan according to the situation of the case and the needs of the patient.

For all treatment options, if the patient follows the doctor's advice and uses his/her medications properly, he/she will have a smooth recovery period.

What is gum aesthetics?

Sometimes, even if our gums are healthy, they may have an aesthetically unpleasant appearance considering their contour structure and level. In such cases, we can give the gums a more beautiful appearance with procedures we call gingivoplasty or gingivectomy.

If our gums are visible when we smile and our teeth are short, we can have a much more beautiful smile by contouring the gums and lengthening the crown length. Sometimes the levels of our gums can be very different from each other.

In this case, we can lower the level of the gums to the required level with small incisions and achieve an ideal smile line with such small interventions.

Is cleaning stains on teeth and teeth whitening the same thing?

No it is not. While cleaning the teeth, the discoloration on the teeth caused by colored foods and smoking can be removed by using a cleaning paste with the help of a rubber or brush. However, this procedure cannot lighten the tooth's own color tone.

Lightening the color tone of the tooth can be done with special drug applications called bleaching.

Does diabetes affect gums?

Uncontrolled diabetes is a systemic condition that disrupts the health of periodontal tissues. The response of the immune system has changed in these patients. This causes disease in the gum tissues.

However, the tissue response in controlled individuals is the same as in healthy people. They do not pose much risk in terms of disease formation and implant application.

Do medications cause gum enlargement?

Some medications used by epilepsy and blood pressure patients may cause gum enlargement. Additionally, some immune-suppressing drugs can also cause such results. When your doctor performs a detailed systemic and clinical examination, he will determine the source of the gingival enlargement.

Is there a treatment for receding gums?

First of all, it is necessary to identify the cause and eliminate it if possible. Lost gingival tissue can be regained by the patient through some surgical gingival graft (tissue) applications. A piece of gingival tissue taken from the patient's palate is transferred to the area where gingival recession occurs.

Gum specialists decide on the practices of gum surgeries after a detailed examination. These surgeries cannot be performed on every patient. The periodontist will make the best decision for his patient.

Does genetics have an impact on periodontal diseases?

Yes, there is genetic transmission. Both environmental and genetic factors are effective in the formation and progression of the disease.

I have sensitivity in my gums, what should I do?

First, the source of sensitivity must be determined. If there is decay or unsuitable restorations, they should be treated. If there is sensitivity due to gingival recession;

  • The gum can be closed surgically,
  • A desensitizing agent can be applied to the root surface,
  • Filling can be applied to the root surface,
  • Desensitizing pastes can be used.

Your doctor will determine the best option for you.

Can implants be applied to people with gum disease?

If the patient needs dental scaling and further treatment, it is possible to apply the implant after creating a clean, inflammation-free environment in the mouth.

Update Date: 10.11.2023
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Oral and Dental Health Polyclinic
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